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Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

BOMT provides solutions for screening, diagnosis, treatment and continuous monitoring of patients suffering from Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) or Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB).

Select options to learn more about Obstructive Sleep Apnea and associated co-morbidities like Type 2 Diabetes, Secondary Hypertension

The Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by recurring episodes for at least 10 seconds of upper airway obstruction during sleep. The upper airway closure is either complete (apnea) or partial ( hypopnea). These episodes, which are repeated up to several hundred times during sleep, often lead to micro-arousals which substantially alter the quality of sleep. Apneas and hypopneas are almost always accompanied by loud snoring and are a cause of major stress on the cardiovascular system.

Common symptoms of sleep disorders

The most common symptoms of OSA or SDB are loud snoring associated with excessive daytime sleepiness. However these symptoms are generally  ignored by most people as signs of sleep disorder and they fail to report these to their physicians.

Other symptoms of OSA/ SDB are : 

  • Gasping or choking during sleep
  • Dry mouth or sore throat in the morning
  • Morning Headache
  • Witnessed pauses in breathing during sleep
  • Lack of concentration
  • Depression
  • Irritative behaviour
  • Daytime Fatigue
  • Forgetfulness
  • Sexual Dysfunction
  • Regular weight gain
  • Frequent urination at night (Nocturia)

It is very important to identify the common symptoms of OSA/ SDB and discuss with your physician. The physician will advice you about the potential risk of sleep apnea and will advice you to undergo a sleep test at home.

Risk factors of untreated Sleep Apnea

Obesity :

  • Sleep deprivation or diminishing quality of sleep increases appetite for high calorie food
  • 90% of obese male and 50% of obese females are estimated to have OSA
  • Incidence of OSA is directly related to increase in Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • About 80% of patients with OSA weight 130% or more of their ideal body weight

Cardiac Arrhythmias :

  • Untreated OSA  leads to  4 times the chance of developing Atrial Fibrillation which is a very dangerous arrhythmia and can lead to adverse events like stroke.

Type 2 Diabetes:

  • Untreated sleep apnea leads to poor insunil control and poorly controlled blood sugars
  • 58% of patients with Type 2 Diabetes  estimated to have OSA
  • 86% of Obese patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from OSA

Secondary Hypertension:

  • OSA is leading cause of secondary hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
  • Blood pressure dips at night in normal persons , whereas in patients with OSA , blood pressure doesn’t dip
  • Resistant Hypertension, absence of nocturnal decrease in BP and Obesity are often simultaneously present in patients with OSA

Mood Disturbance:

Untreated OSA can lead to

  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Loss of Motivation
  • Shortened attention span
  • Moodiness and bad temper
  • Poor judgement

Stroke:

  • Men with moderate to severe OSA are nearly 3 times more likely to have stroke
  • OSA is often found in patients following a stroke
  • Risk of stroke rises with severity of OSA

Accident and Workplace Inefficiency:

  • Excessive daytime sleepiness leads to 6 fold increase in risk of car accidents
  • Reduced alertness, impaired concentration, memory loss, daytime sleepiness , fatigue can affect workplace efficiency and productivity

Treatment

Treatment by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is currently the most effective treatment of OSAS, as its benefits largely outweigh the drawbacks. CPAP consists in blowing air in the airway to restore normal breathing and sleep patterns during the night using a nasal or a full face mask which is connected via a tube to the device.  After prescription, the CPAP device is put in place by a home healthcare provider, who plays a key role in patient adherence to therapy and education about the treatment.