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Cheyne-Stokes Respiration

Sleep apnoea and heart failure

Heart failure is a growing problem worldwide that rises with age, and is estimated to affect 6-10% of people aged over 65.

Up to 73% of patients with stable heart failure experience sleep-disordered breathing (SDB),with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or central sleep apnea (CSA).

What is CSR ?

It is an abnormal breathing pattern with progressively deeper, and sometimes faster, breathing followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop in breathing called an apnea. The pattern repeats, with each cycle usually taking 30 seconds to 2 minutes.

Though CSR was initially reported in patients with congestive heart failure or stroke, it was later recognized also as a component of the sleep apnea syndrome.


Neuromuscular Disease

Neuromuscular disease (NMD) is a group of multiple conditions which lead to weakness of muscles or nerves controlling the muscles.

Common Symptoms of respiratory problems in NMD:

  • Difficulty in breathing or swalloing
  • Daytime sleepiness, tiredness
  • Morning headaches
  • Mood swings
  • Difficulty in concentration

Obesity Hypoventilation

Characterized by hypoventilation (excessively slow or shallow breathing) with following symptoms

  • Found in people with obesity and BMI > 30
  • Mostly in combination with sleep apnea
  • Falling oxygen levels in blood during sleep
  • Increased CO2 level in blood

The treatment for Obesity Hypoventilation is mostly through Non Invasive Ventilation with BILEVEL or DUAL PRESSURE mode.

Interstitial Lung Disease (Restrictive)

Group of lung diseases which cause thickening Interstitium, a part of anatomical structure of the Lungs, most common symptom being shortness of breath worsening over time, dry cough with weight loss.

Common Causes of ILD

  • Respiratory irritants like asbestos, talc, silica dust, coal dust, grain dust, bird proteins etc
  • Bacteria, virus, fungi for interstitial pneumonia
  • Autoimmune conditions like Rheumatoid Arthritis or Scleroderma
  • A chronic, progressive form of fibrosis (scarring) of the Interstitium, for causes unknown, and irreversible

Combination of medication, supplemental oxygen support and Non Invasive Ventilation at home with BILEVEL or DUAL PRESSURE mode , are the usual line of treatment.